Cultural industry and the creative sector in the European Union

Objectives and competences

Objectives of the course:
- To acquaint students with the complexity of the phenomenon of creativity and its importance in the wider social, economic and cultural environment;
- to acquaint students with basic terms in the field of the cultural industry as well as with their impact on the economy and culture;
- to familiarize with European policies in the field of cultural and creative industry tto understand the importance of the creative sector in the EU (by presenting examples);
- teach students to think critically about and interpret culture not only in the context of strategies and processes of marketing or management, but mainly of its importance for producing meanings in everyday life;
- to give students basic skills and knowledge to recognize the potentials of the cultural industry for the launch of creative entrepreneurship and cultural innovation, especially in the context of local and traditional as sources of creativity.

Subject-specific competences:
Students will manage basic concepts in the field of cultural and creative industries as important factors of modern culture and economy.
Students will acquire comprehensive and reliable information about European programs, financial mechanisms, events and manifestations in the field of cultural and creative industries.

General competences:
Ability of analytical thinking and social-critical observation;
the ability of socio-cultural and historical contextualization;
ability to participate in discussions and interdisciplinary thinking.


Fluency in English
Basic knowledge of the cultural sector (recommended)


The course deals with the importance and development of the creative sector and the concept of "Cultural and Creative Industries" (CCI) in all its complexity: from definitions of the basic concept of "creativity" to familiarization with the European cultural policies, cultural events and projects, as well as their criticism introducing also a new view of the relationship between heritage and innovation as sources of creativity.

The course consists in the following thematic sections:

  1. Understanding the definition and meaning of creativity. The connection of creativity with the social, economic and cultural environment and how a creative atmosphere (creative milieu) is created in a certain local environment; Everyday life as the democratization of creativity; AI and creativity beyond human creativity.

  2. The CCI phenomenon, concepts and development: what did the phrase "cultural industry" originally mean (Adorno, Horkheimer), how did its meaning develop and transform, in what way does it affect society and the economy, what are the styles and models of cultural production and creativity: creativity for innovation (new technologies, digitization, communication, etc.) and creativity for social quality (culture, territory, cultural districts, etc.).

  3. CCI as a leading segment of the global economy with an overview of the European cultural policy regarding cultural and creative industry and the importance of the creative sector in the EU, as well as intersectoral connections, especially in the art-science-technology triangle. Creativity and cultural production in the EU - models of cultural industries; projects and programs (Creative Europe, Horizon, S+T+ARTS, etc.).

  4. Problematization of the cultural industry and the problem field of CCI: instrumentalization of creativity and the importance of culture as a consumer good; creativity as capital-labour in the context of the cultural industry. In other words: does consumption and the cultural industry as part of the economy really produce and preserve culture?

  5. Presentation of the importance of heritage and the theory of goods:

  • how does heritage work as a source of creativity?
  • Tradition/innovation: a false dichotomy?
  • What does national heritage mean as a cultural industry (cultural tourism and art cities) in juxtaposition with creative tourist?
  • the importance of cultural events and manifestations (Expo, Venice Biennale, ECoC, etc.).
  • Design and material culture: the cultures of design and co-design (Homo faber, Community of practice, learning by doing, etc.).

Intended learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding:

The student understands the meaning and the basic concepts of CCI and their connection with the social and economic context.
Knows and critically evaluates modern trends in the field of development of CCI and wider development of the economy in direction of tertiary and quaternary activities of post-industrial society.
The student develops an attitude towards culture and the creative sector and cultivates the need for new knowledge and the discovery of advantages and opportunities in the field of CCI and specific possibilities of interdisciplinary and inter-sector integration, including new forms of networking and co-creation.
He knows the basics of project preparation and evaluation in the area of CCI.

He knows the mechanisms of support and financing (e.g. Creative Europe, Obzorje, etc.) as well as the way of operation and the importance of events and manifestations at international level (EPK, Expo, various biennials, festivals, etc.). He/she is aware of the importance of appropriate contextualization of creative ideas in the environment and socio-historical reality, as well as the importance of communicating with the public and other stakeholders.

Students develop the ability to communicate and narrate, and acquires basic knowledge for research work related to CCI field, but also knows how to identify opportunities for placing a project idea in the context of CCI.
Students are aware of the necessity of an interdisciplinary approach. They acquire the ability to think analytically and to independently and reflectively analyze social and cultural phenomena.


Scientific literature and theory:

  • Adorno, Theodor W. The Culture Industry: Selected Essays on Mass Culture (1938–69), ed. By J.m. Bernstein (London: Routledge, 1991). Catalogue E-version
  • Greffe X., Creativity, Heritage and the City, Springer, 2017 Catalogue
  • Florida, Richard, The rise of the creative class. New York: Basic Books, 2002 Catalogue E-version
  • C. Pratt, Andy and Jeffcutt, Paul. Creativity, Innovation and the Cultural Economy (London/New York: Routledge, 2009). Catalogue
  • Bilton, Chris. »Relocation creativity in advertising: from aesthetic specialisation to strategic integration«, in Creativity, Innovation and the Cultural Economy, eds, A. Pratt and P. Jeffcutt (London/New York: Routledge, 2009), 23–40. Catalogue
  • Melville Herman, Barttleby, the Scrivener 2002 E-version
  • Sasa Dobricic, Marco Acri (edited by), “Creative Cities: which Historic Urban Landscape, Mimesis, Milan, 2017. Catalogue
  • Dobričić, S., Magnani C., Pedroli B., Strecker A. Common Goods from a Landscape Perspective, I Quaderni Careggi, Issue 06, Florence, 2014. E-version
  • Fraser, Nancy. A New Form of Capitalism, New Left Review 106, July–Avgust, 57–65.
  • Kosovel, Blaž, Zakaj ZDA nimajo ministrstva za kulturo. Od agrikulture do kulturne industrije, od mesta Rim do ameriške civilizacije (ZRC SAZU, 2022) Catalogue

European declarations and strategic cultural policies:

  • Museums, museum professionals and COVID-19), Report ICOM 2020 E-version
  • Museums around the world in the face of COVID-19, 2020, UNESCO Report 2020 E-version
  • Shaping Europe’s Digital Future, Declaration of the EU, 20/02/2020 E-version
  • European Agenda for Culture in a globalizing world (2011-2017) E-version
  • New European Agenda for Culture (2018-2022) E-version


Method (written exam, oral examination,
tasks, project):

Active participation in course activities (meetings, ongoing tasks) - 20%

Preparation of the project task (project proposal) - 30%

Presentation of the project assignment with an oral examination of subject knowledge - 50%

Lecturer's references

Acri M., Dobričić S., Uncomfortable Heritage – Patrimonio scomodo, in Officina 35, 2021.
Acri M., Dobricic S., Debevec M., Urban Corridors as Common Pool Resources:
the Case of Nova Gorica and Rijeka, in Giofrè F., Halilović-Terzić S. (edited by) “Making Healthy Cities for People, HURBE2021” conference proceedings, Sarajevo, 2021, pp. 145-154, ISBN 978-9926-490-02-7
Acri M., Dobričić S., “Still Life” – Natura Morta: the landscapes of proximity, in “Landscape and Coronavirus”, Special Issue, Ri-vista, 2021, DOI: 10.36253/rv-11510-
Acri M., Dobričić S., Debevec M., Regenerating the Historic Urban Landscape through Circular Bottom Up Actions: the Urban Seeding process in Rijeka, Fusco Girard L., Gravagnuolo A. (edited by), Sustainability, Special Issue, 2021,
Acri M., Dobričić S., Jokilehto J., The Circular Character of Building Tradition: Which Challenges for the HUL Approach, in “Proceedings of the STS Conference Graz 2019”, Graz, 2019, DOI: 10.3217/978-3-85125-668-0-05.
Sasa Dobricic, Marco Acri (edited by), “Creative Cities: which Historic Urban Landscape, Mimesis, Milan, 2017
Dobričić, Saša. La città e il suo sogno: la cartografia come paradigma epistemologico: dalla Parigi di Benjamin all’immaginario cartografico della Moscovia (Università Ca’ Foscari: Venezia, 2015).
Dobričić, S., Magnani C., Pedroli B., Strecker A. Common Goods from a Landscape Perspective, I Quaderni Careggi, Issue 06, Florence, 2014.
Dobričić, Saša. Note sulla topicità della deviazione (Melfi Libri: Melfi, 2012).
Dobričić, Saša, Acri, Marco. A sustainable coordinated model for the regeneration of Ljubljana
(Royal Institute for Strategic Studies: Morocco, 2012), pp. 115–121.

Amendolagine, Franco, Dobričić, Saša. The sustainability of the conservation bonds, the case of Mulino Stucky in Venice (Privatization and Cultural Heritage series, ICCROM: Rome, 2007).
Amendolagine, Franco. Dobričić, Saša. »Between conservation and innovation«, in Proceedings of the 5th EC Conference on Cultural Heritage Research, May 16-18, 2002, ed. Roman Kozlowski (EC editions: Crocow, 2002), pp. 344–348.