This course is part of the programme
Master’s study programme Environment (second cycle)

Objectives and competences

The main goal of the course is to familiarise students with the basic ecological principles of biomonitoring, needs for biomonitoring and approaches for planning biomonitoring. Students learn the procedures for establishing biomonitoring, which are defined by the nature of the objects subject to monitoring, the type of pollutants and by the ecosystem, which reflects the consequences of pollution.


Prerequisite knowledge of ecology as well as certain chapters of chemistry, physics and instrumental methods is required. The course content is linked to courses such as Ecology, Ecotoxicology. Environmental monitoring.


• Ecological background of biomonitoring
• Selecting organisms for the purpose of biomonitoring and the conditions to be fulfilled
• Accumulative and response biomonitoring
• The role of biomonitoring in determining the environmental pollution level and the impact of pollutants on the environment
• Advantages and disadvantages of biomonitoring and the comparison to the chemical / physical monitoring
• Equipment and methods required to perform the monitoring

Intended learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding:
• understand the importance of species – environment interactions for functioning of the biomonitioring;
• know the differences between different types of monitoring and are capable of a competent decision of choosing the right one for a particular case;
• are capable of making a plan for a simple biomonitoring;
• are able to estimate what to expect from biomonitoring results;
• are able to create a team of specialists for a detailed plan of a biomonitoring and to perform it.


  • Wiersma, G. B.: Environmental Monitoring. CRC Press, 2004.
  • Lindenmayer, D. B. & Likens, G. E.: Effective ecological monitoring. Earthscan, 2010. E-version
  • Furness, R. W. & Greenwood, J. J. D.: Birds as monitors of environmental change. Chapman&Hall, 1993.E-version


• Field excursion (0 %) - obligatory • Presentation of the seminar (0 %) - obligatory • Written examination (100 %)

Lecturer's references

Assoc. Professor of Ecology at the University of Ljubljana

TOME, Davorin, DENAC, Damijan. Survival and development of predator avoidance in the post-fledging period of the Whinchat (Saxicola rubetra) : consequences for conservation measures. Journal für Ornithologie, ISSN 0021-8375, 2012, vol. 153, no. 1, str. 131-138., doi: 10.1007/s10336-011-0713-2. [COBISS.SI-ID 2387535]

TOME, Davorin. Post-fledging survival and dynamics of dispersal in Long-eared Owls Asio otus. Bird study, ISSN 0006-3657, 2011, vol. 58, no. 2, str. 193-199., doi:10.1080/00063657.2011.559531. [COBISS.SI-ID 2373455]

DENAC, Damijan, KOCE, Urša, TOME, Davorin, VREZEC, Al. Lov in uravnavanje populacij ptic = Hunting and population regulation in birds. Varstvo narave, ISSN 0506-4252, 2010, št. 23, str. 39-53. [COBISS.SI-ID 26944473]

AL SAYEGH-PETKOVŠEK, Samar, TOME, Davorin, POKORNY, Boštjan. Ocena tveganja zaradi prehoda svinca (Pb) iz tal prek prehranjevalne verige v male sesalce (na primeru pehotnih strelišč) = Risk assessment of lead contamination for small mammal food chains (case studyfor shooting ranges). Zbornik gozdarstva in lesarstva, ISSN 0351-3114. [Tiskana izd.], 2010, št. 91, str. 13-30, ilustr. [COBISS.SI-ID1063638]

TOME, Davorin. Ali je populacija kosca Crex crex na Ljubljanskem barju (še) stabilna? = Is the corn crake Crex crex population at Ljubljansko barje (still) stable?. Acrocephalus, ISSN 0351-2851, 2002, letn. 23, št. 113-114, str. 141-143. [COBISS.SI-ID 16179417]