This course is part of the programme
Bachelor's programme in Environment (first cycle)

Objectives and competences

The primary goal of this course is to give students knowledge about composition, development and functioning of Earth as natural system and the framework of environmental processes. Students are capable of recognizing the geological composition of Earth surface, basic processes, which transform and reshape the Earth’s crust, chemical composition and physical processes and related natural hazards.


Knowledge of physical geography, chemistry and physics adequate to the A-Level


  • Brief introduction and history of geology
  • Formation and structure of the Earth
  • Crystals and minerals
  • Igneous rocks
  • Weathering
  • Sedimentary processes and sedimentary rocks
  • Metamorphosis and metamorphic rocks
  • Plate tectonics and origin of Life
  • Surface water
  • Groundwater
  • Seas and coasts
  • Deserts and wind action
  • Cryosphere and ice ages
  • Earthquakes and deformation of Earth’s crust
  • Mineral deposits
  • Geological hazards
  • Geology and time, Earth’s history
  • Geology of Slovenia (brief overview)

Intended learning outcomes

Students learn the history of the Earth, the composition and structure of Earth’s interior and surface, as well as its fluid spheres (hydrosphere, atmosphere) and the role of Life in reshaping the Earth’s surface. They get acquainted with endogenic and exogenic processes, which mobilize and relocate chemical elements between different spheres, change the chemical composition and physical properties of rocks and rock formations and reshape the Earth’s surface in different ways. The relations and inter-dependencies of Earth’s spheres are explained. Students also learn to recognize rocks, basic geological processes, resulting geological structures and their influence on morphological, hydrogeological and geo-mechanical properties of the surface. Finally, students are able to recognize natural hazards, resulting from geological composition, and consider them in planning land use and management of natural resources.


  • Johnson, C., Affolter, M.D., Inkenbrandt, P, Mosher, C. 2017. An Introduction to Geology (Free Textbook for College-Level Introductory Geology Courses). Salt Lake Community College, prosti dostop na E-gradivo
  • Earle, S., 2019. Physical Geology. 2. izdaja, BCcampus OpenEd (prosti dostop na E-gradivo


Practical knowledge: oral examination in recognition of rocks and minerals, written report on the field trip (33,3 %). Theoretical knowledge: written and oral examination (66,7 %).

Lecturer's references

Associate professor of Geology at the University of Nova Gorica

ZAVADLAV, Saša, KANDUČ, Tjaša, MCINTOSH, Jennifer, LOJEN, Sonja. Isotopic and chemical constraints on the biogeochemistry of dissolved inorganic carbon and chemical weathering in the karst watershed of Krka river (Slovenia). Aquatic geochemistry, ISSN 1380-6165, 2013, vol. 19, issue 3, str. 209-230, doi: 10.1007/s10498-013-9188-5. [COBISS.SI-ID 26547495]

ZAVADLAV, Saša, MAZEJ, Darja, ZAVAŠNIK, Janez, REČNIK, Aleksander, DOMINGUEZ-VÍLLAR, David, CUKROV, Neven, LOJEN, Sonja. C and O stable isotopic signatures of fast-growing dripstones on alkaline substrates : reflection of growth mechanism, carbonate sources and environmental conditions. Isotopes in environmental and health studies, ISSN 1025-6016, 2012, vol. 48, issue 2, str. 354-371, doi: 10.1080/10256016.2012.645540. [COBISS.SI-ID 25597479]

LOJEN, Sonja, SONDI, Ivan, JURAČIĆ, Mladen. Geochemical conditions for the preservation of recent aragonite-rich sediments in Mediterranean karstic marine lakes (Mljet Island, Adriatic Sea, Croatia). Marine & freshwater research, ISSN 1323-1650, 2010, vol. 61, no. 1, str. 119-128. [COBISS.SI-ID 23406119]

LOJEN, Sonja, TRKOV, Andrej, ŠČANČAR, Janez, VÁZQUEZ-NAVARRO, Juan A., CUKROV, Neven. Continuous 60-year stable isotopic and earth-alkali element records in a modern laminated tufa (Jaruga, river Krka, Croatia) : implications for climate reconstruction. Chemical geology, ISSN 0009-2541. [Print ed.], 2009, vol. 258, no. 3, str. 242-250, doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2008.10.013. [COBISS.SI-ID 22294055]

DOLENEC, Tadej, LOJEN, Sonja, RAMOVŠ, Anton. The Permian-Triassic boundary in Western Slovenia (Idrijca Valley section) : magnetostratigraphy, stable isotopes, and elemental variations. Chemical geology, ISSN 0009-2541. [Print ed.], 2001, vol. 175, str. 175-190. [COBISS.SI-ID 15939367]